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Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown.

Significant differences were found in gut microbiota between European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso, , where the diet is high in fiber content, and is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture.

Burkina Faso children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes, and a unique abundance of bacteria from the genus Prevotella and Xylanibacter, completely lacking in the EU children. Enterobacteriaceae (Shigella and Escherichia) were significantly underrepresented in Burkina Faso children.

In addition, we found significantly more short-chain fatty acids in Burkina Faso children. 

Gut microbiota might have coevolved with the polysaccharide-rich diet, allowing to maximize energy intake from fibers while also protecting from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. 

Pythagoras

As long as Man continues to be the ruthless destroyer of lower living beings, he will never know health or peace.

Undernutrition

Undernutrition is a form of malnutrition. (Malnutrition also includes overnutrition).

Undernutrition can result from:

  • inadequate ingestion of nutrients,
  • malabsorption,
  • impaired metabolism,
  • loss of nutrients due to diarrhea,
  • increased nutritional requirements.

Undernutrition progresses in stages: it may develop slowly when it is due to anorexia or very rapidly. First, nutrient levels in blood and tissues change, followed by intracellular changes in biochemical functions and structure. Ultimately, symptoms and signs appear. Diagnosis is by history, physical examination, body composition analysis, and sometimes laboratory tests. 

Undernutrition from micronutrient deficiencies, or "hidden hunger", affects over 2 billion people globally and can lead to reduced growth and cognitive development, birth defects, blindness, and overall poor health. Vitamin A deficiencyiron deficiency anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders are among the most common forms of micronutrient malnutrition. 

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