Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown.
Significant differences were found in gut microbiota between European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso, , where the diet is high in fiber content, and is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture.
Burkina Faso children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes, and a unique abundance of bacteria from the genus Prevotella and Xylanibacter, completely lacking in the EU children. Enterobacteriaceae (Shigella and Escherichia) were significantly underrepresented in Burkina Faso children.
In addition, we found significantly more short-chain fatty acids in Burkina Faso children.
Gut microbiota might have coevolved with the polysaccharide-rich diet, allowing to maximize energy intake from fibers while also protecting from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases.
Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.
Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ):
- potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells;
- chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids;
- sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
- calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
- phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life;
- choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
- magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;
Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day:
- iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
- zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
- manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
- fluorine, F, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
- copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
- iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
- selenium, Se (35 mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
- chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.