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Recommended intake for adults, in milligrams per day (recommended calcium allowances based on North American and western European data):

  • Adolescents, 10–18 years - 1300 mg / day
  • Females, 19 years to menopause - 1000 mg / day
  • Females, pregnant women (last trimester) - 1200 mg / day
  • Females, lactating women - 1000 mg / day
  • Females, postmenopause - 1300 mg / day
  • Males, 19–65 years - 1000 mg / day
  • Males, 65+ years - 1300 mg / day

The calcium requirement of an adult is generally recognized to be the intake required to maintain calcium balance and therefore skeletal integrity

Calcium balance is determined by the relationship between calcium intake and calcium absorption and excretion. Relatively small changes in calcium absorption and excretion can neutralize a high intake or compensate for a low one. 

A positive calcium balance (net calcium retention) is required throughout growth, particularly during the first 2 years of life and during puberty and adolescence. These age groups therefore constitute populations at risk for calcium deficiency, as do pregnant women (especially in the last trimester), lactating women, postmenopausal women, and, possibly, elderly men. 

John Stuart Mill

A person may cause evil to others not only by his actions but by his inaction, and in either case he is justly accountable to them for the injury.

Zinc

Zinc is a nutritionally essential mineral needed for catalytic, structural, and regulatory functions in the body.

The RDA (recommended daily allowance) for adult women and men is 8 mg a day and 11 mg a day of zinc, respectively.

Severe zinc deficiency is a rare, genetic or acquired condition. Dietary zinc deficiency, often called marginal zinc deficiency, is quite common in the developing world, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Zinc deficiency can cause impaired growth and development in children, pregnancy complications, immune dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term consumption of zinc in excess of the tolerable upper intake level of 40 mg a day for adults can result in copper deficiency.

Zinc bioavailability is relatively high in meat, eggs, and seafood. Zinc is less bioavailable from whole grains and legumes due to the inhibitory effects of phytic acid on absorption of the mineral.

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