Supplementation of vitamin D is effective in preventing overall mortality in a long-term. It is not significantly effective in a treatment duration shorter than 3 years.
Vitamin D therapy significantly decreased all-cause mortality with a duration of follow-up longer than 3 years. No benefit was seen in a shorter follow-up periods.
The following subgroups of long-term follow-up had significantly fewer deaths:
- female only,
- participants with a mean age younger than 80,
- daily dose of 800 IU or less,
- participants with vitamin D insufficiency and cholecalciferol therapy.
The combination of vitamin D and calcium significantly reduced mortality and vitamin D alone also had a trend to decrease mortality in a longer time follow up.
An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. Humans can be roughly divided into three enterotypes depending on which genus of bacteria dominates their gut: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, or Prevotella.
- People who eat a lot of meat and saturated fat tended to have more Bacteroides in their flora.
- Ruminococcus prevailed in people who consumed lots of alcohol and polyunsaturated fats.
- Prevotella favored a diet rich in carbohydrates.
Long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition. If switching gut enterotype is possible, it may take a long-term dietary intervention.
Chimpanzees have enterotypes that are compositionally analogous to those found in humans.