All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Having established the association of vitamin B12 insufficiency with neurodegenerative disease, the challenge is to discern the direction, if any, of causation.

Most neurological impairments present a slow, progressive course (Josephs et al., 2009) and vitamin B12 levels may take a number of years to deplete (Herbert, 1988). Studies investigating causation would need to continue over an extended period of time.

Low serum vitamin B12 levels may play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease; however, it is equally plausible that neurological impairment may lead to poor nutrition and hence to inadequate dietary intake. Also, any association may simply be coincident or the factors predisposing patients for neurodegenerative disease may simply also expose the patient to a higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency, for example, poor nutrition. Further intervention studies in large samples followed over an extended period of time are required. This will allow for further investigation of the role, if any, of vitamin B12 in the onset or progression of neurodegenerative disease, as well as the latent period of effect of vitamin B12 insufficiency before cognitive deficits are evident.

Isaac Bashevis Singer

What do they know-all these scholars, all these philosophers, all the leaders of the world - about such as you? They have convinced themselves that man, the worst transgressor of all the species, is the crown of creation. All other creatures were created merely to provide him with food, pelts, to be tormented, exterminated. 

Seeds

Seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperms and angiosperms plants, that now dominate biological niches on land. 

The term "seed" also has a general meaning of anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes (tubers), "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". 

Many structures commonly referred to as "seeds" are actually dry fruits. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits (such as the peach) have a hardened fruit layer (the endocarp) fused to and surrounding the actual seed.

Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed (acorn, hazelnut).

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