All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Those experiencing pernicious anemia (an auto-immune reaction to either the parietal cells or intrinsic factor) go on to develop vitamin B12 deficiency through malabsorption if untreated. Deficiency could develop within 1–3 years in those experiencing malabsorption. 

Patients having surgical alteration of the distal ileum, Crohn’s disease, and using metformin are also at an increased risk for malabsorption.

Herbert (1994) estimates that deficiency could take as long as 20–30 years to develop in persons having normal absorption/reabsorption and suddenly ceasing to include substantial amounts of vitamin B12 in their diet during adulthood. This is due to the large amount of vitamin B12 that can be stored in the body and recycled through enterohepatic reabsorption. 

The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age and is associated with a number of conditions and treatments.

The main causes of vitamin B12 deficiency are

  • poor dietary intake (as in vegetarianism),
  • poor absorption (occurring in achlorhydria, pernicious anemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, Crohn’s disease, and metformin use),
  • poor distribution (genetic predisposition for aberrant proteins that are inefficient in transport or cellular uptake of vitamin B12).

Mahatma Gandhi

The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.

Fructose, Glucose, Sucrose - Sugars in Plant Foods

  • Fructose and glucose are simple sugars, monosaccharides, with the general formula C6H12O6
    • Fructose, or fruit sugar, occurs naturally in fruits, some root vegetables, cane sugar and honey and is the sweetest of the sugars. 
    • Glucose, dextrose or grape sugar, occurs naturally in fruits and plant juices and is the primary product of photosynthesis. Most ingested carbohydrates are converted into glucose during digestion and it is the form of sugar that is transported around the bodies of animals in the bloodstream. 
  • Sucrose is a compound sugar, disaccharide, with the general formula C12H22O11
    Sucrose is found in the stems of sugarcane and roots of sugar beet. It also occurs naturally alongside fructose and glucose in other plants, in particular fruits and some roots (carrots). A molecule of sucrose is formed by the combination of a molecule of glucose with a molecule of fructose, and it is split into these parts during digestion.

The different proportions of sugars found in plant foods determines their sweetness

Fruitarians.net Apple