All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Those experiencing pernicious anemia (an auto-immune reaction to either the parietal cells or intrinsic factor) go on to develop vitamin B12 deficiency through malabsorption if untreated. Deficiency could develop within 1–3 years in those experiencing malabsorption. 

Patients having surgical alteration of the distal ileum, Crohn’s disease, and using metformin are also at an increased risk for malabsorption.

Herbert (1994) estimates that deficiency could take as long as 20–30 years to develop in persons having normal absorption/reabsorption and suddenly ceasing to include substantial amounts of vitamin B12 in their diet during adulthood. This is due to the large amount of vitamin B12 that can be stored in the body and recycled through enterohepatic reabsorption. 

The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age and is associated with a number of conditions and treatments.

The main causes of vitamin B12 deficiency are

  • poor dietary intake (as in vegetarianism),
  • poor absorption (occurring in achlorhydria, pernicious anemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, Crohn’s disease, and metformin use),
  • poor distribution (genetic predisposition for aberrant proteins that are inefficient in transport or cellular uptake of vitamin B12).

Franz Kafka

Now I can look at you in peace; I don't eat you any more.

Trees

 A tree is a plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years.

A variety of plant species have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches to compete for sunlight. In more general sense, tall palms, tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. The roots branch out under the ground to anchor the tree and to extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches usually bear leaves, which capture light. 

Trees reduce erosion and moderate the climate. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Some trees provide edible fruit

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