Green beans, red kidney beans, and white kidney beans - contain naturally a toxin known as phytohaemagglutinin. Food poisoning caused by this toxin in raw and inadequately-cooked beans has a short onset time (1-3 hours) with symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. However, this toxic substance can be destroyed by soaking and then cooking thoroughly at boiling temperature. Tinned beans which have been subjected to thorough heat-treatment are safe to eat without further cooking.
All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena
Toxins in Beans
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William of Ockham
Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.
Choline is an essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently.
The recommended adequate intake (AI) of choline is set at 425 milligrams (mg)/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.
Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which results in a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic predispositions and gender can influence individual variation in choline requirements.
Example Plant Fruitarian Sources of Choline
Seeds (including legumes and nuts), high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion:
- Soybeans - 124 mg
- Lima beans - 97 mg
- Lentils - 96 mg
- Peas (mature) - 96 mg
- Flaxseeds - 79 mg
- Pistachio nuts - 71 mg
- Quinoa - 70 mg
- Pumpkin and squash seed kernels (pepitas) - 63 mg
- Cashew nuts - 61 mg
- Pine nuts - 56 mg
- Sunflower seed kernels - 55 mg
- Buckwheat - 54 mg
- Almonds - 52 mg
Fruits, high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion:
- Tomatoes, sun-dried - 105 mg
- Apples - 18 mg
- Figs - 16 mg
- Avocados - 14 mg