The lowest rates of heart disease were in people with the lowest levels of resveratrol. Resveratrol - a substance found in red wine, grapes and chocolate - may not add years to your life, and it doesn't appear to reduce the risk for heart disease or cancer either, according to new research.
Resveratrol has been credited as being responsible for the so-called "French paradox," in which even a diet high in cholesterol and fat can be healthy if it is accompanied with red wine, the researchers explained. For the study, Semba's team followed nearly 800 men and women 65 years or older who were part of the Aging in the Chianti Region study from 1998 to 2009 in two villages in Italy.
Researchers found no significant differences in the rate of death from those with the lowest levels of resveratrol to the highest.
Choline is an essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently.
The recommended adequate intake (AI) of choline is set at 425 milligrams (mg)/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.
Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which results in a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic predispositions and gender can influence individual variation in choline requirements.
Example Plant Fruitarian Sources of Choline
Seeds (including legumes and nuts), high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion:
- Soybeans - 124 mg
- Lima beans - 97 mg
- Lentils - 96 mg
- Peas (mature) - 96 mg
- Flaxseeds - 79 mg
- Pistachio nuts - 71 mg
- Quinoa - 70 mg
- Pumpkin and squash seed kernels (pepitas) - 63 mg
- Cashew nuts - 61 mg
- Pine nuts - 56 mg
- Sunflower seed kernels - 55 mg
- Buckwheat - 54 mg
- Almonds - 52 mg
Fruits, high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion:
- Tomatoes, sun-dried - 105 mg
- Apples - 18 mg
- Figs - 16 mg
- Avocados - 14 mg