All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

D

  • 30 Minutes of Sunshine Vitamin D Recommendation

    In recommending intakes for vitamin D, it must be recognized that in most locations in the world in a broad band around the equator (latitudes 42°N - 42°S), the most physiologically relevant and efficient way of acquiring vitamin D is to synthesize it endogenously in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by sun (UV) light exposure.

    In most situations, ~ 30 minutes of skin exposure of the arms and face to sunlight can provide all the daily vitamin D needs of the body.

    Skin synthesis of vitamin D is negatively influenced by factors which may reduce the ability of the skin to provide the total needs of the individual:

    • latitude and season - both influence the amount of UV light reaching the skin;
    • ageingprocess - thinning of the skin reduces the efficiency of this synthetic process;
    • skin pigmentation - the presence of darker pigments in the skin interferes with the synthetic process because UV light cannot reach the appropriate layer of the skin;
    • clothing - virtually complete covering of the skin for medical, social, cultural, or religious reasons leaves insufficient skin exposed to sunlight;
    • sunscreen use - widespread and liberal use of sunscreen, though reducing skin damage by the sun deleteriously affects synthesis of vitamin D.

    Because not all of these problems can be solved in all geographic locations, particularly during winter at latitudes higher than 42° where synthesis is virtually zero, it is recommended that individuals not synthesizing vitamin D should correct their vitamin D status by consuming the amounts of vitamin D. 

    Recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs) for vitamin D, by group, in milligrams (1/1000 g):

    Infants, children, adolescents, and adults 19–50 years, pregnant and lactating women - mg a day RNI;

    Adults 51–65 years - 10 mg a day RNI

    Adults 65+ years - 15 mg a day RNI

  • All Known Essential Vitamins

    Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins:

    • Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, 4 carotenoids)
    • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
    • Vitamin D (D3 - Cholecalciferol, D2 - Ergocalciferol)
    • Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols)
    • Vitamin K (phylloquinone, menaquinones)
    • Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
    • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
    • Vitamin B3 (niacin)
    • Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
    • Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)
    • Vitamin B7 (biotin)
    • Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
    • Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)

    Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue: vitamins A, D, E, K

    Water-soluble vitamins - the body must use almost all water-soluble vitamins right away - vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and C.
    Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.

Marcel Proust

The real voyage of discovery lies not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes. 

Grains

Grains are small, hard, dry seeds, with or without attached hulls or fruit layers, harvested for human or animal consumption. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals (e.g. wheat, rye) and legumes (e.g. beans, soybeans). Seeds

After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits (e.g. plantains, breadfruit) and tubers (e.g. sweet potatoes, cassava). This durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported, stored for long periods, and milled for flour or pressed for oil. Major global commodity markets exist for canola, maize, rice, soybeans, wheat, and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops.

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