All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

choline

  • All Known Essential Minerals

    Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.

    Macrominerals

    Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ): 

    1. potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells; 
    2. chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids; 
    3. sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
    4. calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
    5. phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life; 
    6. choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
    7. magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;

    Trace Minerals

    Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day: 

    1. iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
    2. zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
    3. manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
    4. fluorineF, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
    5. copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
    6. iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
    7. selenium, Se (35mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
    8. chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.

  • Choline Recommended Intake from Seeds and Fruits

    Choline is an essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently.

    The recommended adequate intake (AI) of choline is set at 425 milligrams (mg)/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.

    Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which results in a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic predispositions and gender can influence individual variation in choline requirements.

    Example Plant Fruitarian Sources of Choline

    Seeds (including legumes and nuts), high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion: 

    • Soybeans - 124 mg 
    • Lima beans - 97 mg 
    • Lentils - 96 mg
    • Peas (mature) - 96 mg
    • Flaxseeds - 79 mg 
    • Pistachio nuts - 71 mg 
    • Quinoa - 70 mg 
    • Pumpkin and squash seed kernels (pepitas) -  63 mg 
    • Cashew nuts - 61 mg 
    • Pine nuts - 56 mg 
    • Sunflower seed kernels - 55 mg 
    • Buckwheat - 54 mg 
    • Almonds - 52 mg 

    Fruits, high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion: 

    • Tomatoes, sun-dried - 105 mg 
    • Apples - 18 mg 
    • Figs - 16 mg 
    • Avocados - 14 mg 

Richard Dawkins

I'd like everybody to be a vegetarian... In 100 or 200 years time, we may look back on the way we treated animals today as something like we today look back on the way our forefathers treated slaves.

Phytonutrients

Plant foods contain thousands of natural chemicals, which are called phytonutrients or phytochemicals ("phyto" means "plant"). These chemicals help protect plants from germs, fungi, bugs, and other threats. Phytonutrients are not essential, but they may help prevent disease.

More than 25,000 phytochemicals are found in plant foods, and six important phytonutrients are: 

  • Carotenoids
  • Ellagic acid
  • Flavonoids
  • Resveratrol
  • Glucosinolates
  • Phytoestrogens

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