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Amino Acid

Amino acids are organic compound, the building blocks of proteins.

  • All Essential Amino Acids

    An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the organism, and must be supplied in diet. 

    The 9 amino acids humans cannot synthesize (F V T W M L I K H):

    • phenylalanine
    • valine
    • threonine
    • tryptophan
    • methionine
    • leucine
    • isoleucine
    • lysine
    • histidine

    Animal and plant proteins are made up of about 20 common amino acids.

    Synthesis of 6 other amino acids - conditionally essential - can be limited under special conditions (R C G Q P Y)arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline, and tyrosine.

    Dispensable amino acids can be synthesized in the human body, 5 (A D N E S): alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine .

  • Amino Acid Requirements for Adults

    Estimates of Amino Acid Requirements for adultsmg / kg per day

    • Phenylalanine + tyrosine: 14
    • Leucine: 14
    • Methionine + cystine13
    • Histidine: 8–12
    • Lysine: 12
    • Isoleucine: 10
    • Valine: 10
    • Threonine: 7
    • Tryptophan: 3.5

  • Amino Acids

    Protein plays a crucial role in almost all biological processes and amino acids are the building blocks of it.

    A large proportion of our cells, muscles and tissue is made up of amino acids - 20% Of the human body is made up of protein. 

    ~500 Amino acids are known, 20 appear in the genetic code, 9 are essential for humans because they cannot be created from other compounds by the human body, and must be taken from food.

    Amino acids carry out many important bodily functions: 

    • give cells their structure;
    • play a key role in the transport and the storage of nutrients;
    • have an influence on the function of organs, glands, tendons and arteries;
    • essential for healing wounds and repairing tissue; 
    • important removal of waste deposits.

  • Lysine Enhances Gluten

    Lysine was shown to enhance the nutritive value of gluten for humans. 

    The mean nitrogen balance index for gluten was 0.62. For gluten plus lysine, it was significantly higher, 0.76, approaching the value for casein.

  • Nitrogen Balance

    Nitrogen balance is a measure of nitrogen input minus nitrogen output

    Nitrogen Balance = Nitrogen intake - Nitrogen loss

    Nitrogen is a fundamental component of amino acids, which are the molecular building blocks of protein. Measuring nitrogen inputs and losses can be used to study protein metabolism. 

  • Phenylalanine

    Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid.

    Provided by diet, phenylalanine can be converted into another amino acid, tyrosine, in the body. Tyrosine is used to synthesize two key neurotransmitters that promote alertness: dopamine and norepinephrine. 

    It has 3 forms:

    • D-phenylalanine;
    • L-phenylalanine - most common, the form in which phenylalanine is incorporated into the body’s proteins;
    • DL-phenylalanine.

  • Plant Protein Balance

    Mixtures of plant proteins can serve as a complete and well-balanced source of amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. 

    Plant protein foods contribute ~ 65% of the per capita supply of protein on a worldwide basis, and ~ 32% in the North American region.

  • Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score

    The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been adopted by FAO/WHO as the preferred method for the measurement of the protein value in human nutrition. 

    PDCAAS = Amino Acid Score x Digestibility

    The method is based on comparison of the concentration of the first limiting essential amino acid in the test protein with the concentration of that amino acid in a reference (scoring) pattern. This scoring pattern is derived from the essential amino acid requirements of the preschool-age child.

    Although the principle of the PDCAAS method has been widely accepted, critical questions have been raised in the scientific community:

    1. the validity of the preschool-age child amino acid requirement values (more than 4 times greater than the EAA requirement for an adult),
    2. the validity of correction for fecal instead of ileal digestibility,
    3. the truncation of PDCAAS values to 100%.

    The reference scoring pattern was based on studies performed more than 25 years ago on a limited number of 2-year-old children recovering from malnutrition.

    According to the current official recommendations, a 2-year old child needs ~ 3x higher essential-to-non-essential amino acid ratio, and needs essential amino acids in different proportions than adult. Methionine/cysteine is the limiting essential amino acids for adults, and for children it is lysine or tryptophan.

    The use of fecal digestibility overestimates the nutritional value of a protein because amino acid nitrogen entering the colon is lost for protein synthesis in the body and is, at least in part, excreted in urine as ammonia.

Pythagoras

As long as Man continues to be the ruthless destroyer of lower living beings, he will never know health or peace.

All Known Essential Minerals

Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.

Macrominerals

Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ): 

  1. potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells; 
  2. chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids; 
  3. sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
  4. calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
  5. phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life; 
  6. choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
  7. magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;

Trace Minerals

Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day: 

  1. iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
  2. zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
  3. manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
  4. fluorineF, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
  5. copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
  6. iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
  7. selenium, Se (35 mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
  8. chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.

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