All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Amino Acid

Amino acids are organic compound, the building blocks of proteins.

  • All Essential Amino Acids

    An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the organism, and must be supplied in diet. 

    The 9 amino acids humans cannot synthesize (F V T W M L I K H):

    • phenylalanine
    • valine
    • threonine
    • tryptophan
    • methionine
    • leucine
    • isoleucine
    • lysine
    • histidine

    Animal and plant proteins are made up of about 20 common amino acids.

    Synthesis of 6 other amino acids - conditionally essential - can be limited under special conditions (R C G Q P Y)arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline, and tyrosine.

    Dispensable amino acids can be synthesized in the human body, 5 (A D N E S): alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine .

  • Amino Acid Requirements for Adults

    Estimates of Amino Acid Requirements for adultsmg / kg per day

    • Phenylalanine + tyrosine: 14
    • Leucine: 14
    • Methionine + cystine13
    • Histidine: 8–12
    • Lysine: 12
    • Isoleucine: 10
    • Valine: 10
    • Threonine: 7
    • Tryptophan: 3.5

  • Amino Acids

    Protein plays a crucial role in almost all biological processes and amino acids are the building blocks of it.

    A large proportion of our cells, muscles and tissue is made up of amino acids - 20% Of the human body is made up of protein. 

    ~500 Amino acids are known, 20 appear in the genetic code, 9 are essential for humans because they cannot be created from other compounds by the human body, and must be taken from food.

    Amino acids carry out many important bodily functions: 

    • give cells their structure;
    • play a key role in the transport and the storage of nutrients;
    • have an influence on the function of organs, glands, tendons and arteries;
    • essential for healing wounds and repairing tissue; 
    • important removal of waste deposits.

  • Lysine Enhances Gluten

    Lysine was shown to enhance the nutritive value of gluten for humans. 

    The mean nitrogen balance index for gluten was 0.62. For gluten plus lysine, it was significantly higher, 0.76, approaching the value for casein.

  • Nitrogen Balance

    Nitrogen balance is a measure of nitrogen input minus nitrogen output

    Nitrogen Balance = Nitrogen intake - Nitrogen loss

    Nitrogen is a fundamental component of amino acids, which are the molecular building blocks of protein. Measuring nitrogen inputs and losses can be used to study protein metabolism. 

  • Phenylalanine

    Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid.

    Provided by diet, phenylalanine can be converted into another amino acid, tyrosine, in the body. Tyrosine is used to synthesize two key neurotransmitters that promote alertness: dopamine and norepinephrine. 

    It has 3 forms:

    • D-phenylalanine;
    • L-phenylalanine - most common, the form in which phenylalanine is incorporated into the body’s proteins;
    • DL-phenylalanine.

  • Plant Protein Balance

    Mixtures of plant proteins can serve as a complete and well-balanced source of amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. 

    Plant protein foods contribute ~ 65% of the per capita supply of protein on a worldwide basis, and ~ 32% in the North American region.

  • Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score

    The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been adopted by FAO/WHO as the preferred method for the measurement of the protein value in human nutrition. 

    PDCAAS = Amino Acid Score x Digestibility

    The method is based on comparison of the concentration of the first limiting essential amino acid in the test protein with the concentration of that amino acid in a reference (scoring) pattern. This scoring pattern is derived from the essential amino acid requirements of the preschool-age child.

    Although the principle of the PDCAAS method has been widely accepted, critical questions have been raised in the scientific community:

    1. the validity of the preschool-age child amino acid requirement values (more than 4 times greater than the EAA requirement for an adult),
    2. the validity of correction for fecal instead of ileal digestibility,
    3. the truncation of PDCAAS values to 100%.

    The reference scoring pattern was based on studies performed more than 25 years ago on a limited number of 2-year-old children recovering from malnutrition.

    According to the current official recommendations, a 2-year old child needs ~ 3x higher essential-to-non-essential amino acid ratio, and needs essential amino acids in different proportions than adult. Methionine/cysteine is the limiting essential amino acids for adults, and for children it is lysine or tryptophan.

    The use of fecal digestibility overestimates the nutritional value of a protein because amino acid nitrogen entering the colon is lost for protein synthesis in the body and is, at least in part, excreted in urine as ammonia.

Franz Kafka

Now I can look at you in peace; I don't eat you any more.

Zinc

Zinc is a nutritionally essential mineral needed for catalytic, structural, and regulatory functions in the body.

The RDA (recommended daily allowance) for adult women and men is 8 mg a day and 11 mg a day of zinc, respectively.

Severe zinc deficiency is a rare, genetic or acquired condition. Dietary zinc deficiency, often called marginal zinc deficiency, is quite common in the developing world, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Zinc deficiency can cause impaired growth and development in children, pregnancy complications, immune dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term consumption of zinc in excess of the tolerable upper intake level of 40 mg a day for adults can result in copper deficiency.

Zinc bioavailability is relatively high in meat, eggs, and seafood. Zinc is less bioavailable from whole grains and legumes due to the inhibitory effects of phytic acid on absorption of the mineral.

Fruitarians.net Apple